The history of the Parthenon and the Acropolis
The history of the Parthenon and the Acropolis that stood for thousands of years in Athens. Athens, Greece is one of the few cities in the world that has witnessed ancient religions and past history over the years since its birth. A review of Greek antiquity provides clear evidence of this. And the Parthenon temple, built in honor of the ancient Greek goddess Athena, stands proudly on a limestone hill in the Elyses valley of Athens for 2,500 years.
But there are more than just Parthenon architecture. There are countless small monuments and religious schools in memory of the ancient rulers of Greece. In ancient times the Greek rulers planned to build these structures to please the goddess Athena. Everything that has formed in this region is often referred to as the Acropolis in various scriptures.
However, historians have not been able to come up with a clear definition of the Acropolis.
Archaeologists have been able to confirm the use of the word acropolis since ancient Bronze Age, even though modern-day historians have named these monuments in the Elysium Valley as Acropolis.The term is associated with Greek history.
Historians have always been interested in this famous structure built two and a half thousand years ago. They were built in the 15th century BC. But due to the interest of historians, the structures of the Acropolis and Parthenon temples in Athens have not yet been completely destroyed Over time, the main structures of the Acropolis and the Parthenon have remained intact, even in the face of natural disasters, large-scale earthquakes, wars, and bombings.
That is why modern archaeologists want to build in the ancient style।
Similarities are found with modern construction techniques.
Similarities are found with modern construction techniques. but sometimes it is seen that these installations in Athens have easily surpassed modern engineering. Today we will discuss the construction, planning and renovation of the Acropolis.
Attempts will also be made to provide important information on the construction of the Parthenon temple of the goddess Athena, which has been in existence for thousands of years.
Disrupted construction and Persian invasion
A review of the history of ancient Greece reveals that the Acropolis stood in Athens even in the Bronze Age.
And history says that the Bronze Age lasted from 3300 to 1200 BC. However, there is no clear evidence as to exactly how much of the Acropolis was built in the Bronze Age and how long it survived.
n 490 BC, the Athenians planned to build a temple in Athens.
In 490 BC, the Athenians planned to build a temple in Athens. And according to that plan, they chose the place surrounded by the ruins of the Elysium Valley. Some historians believe that the Athenians long ago regarded the valley as a sacred place. They believed the goddess Athena was watching them from there.
Then the construction of the temple began in full swing, which continued for about 10 years. But at the same time the Persians’ disagreement with the Greeks turned into a war. This war lasted for about 33 years. The war with the Persians destroyed almost every temple and acropolis under construction.
Greece won against the Persians in 446 BC. And General Pericles (495-429 BC) made an outstanding contribution to the Greeks in that war. In the same year, he again announced the reconstruction of temples and shrines in the Acropolis. “Under Pericles, Athens was more developed and modern than any other city in Greece,” said Jeffrey Harwitt, a professor of history at the University of Oregon.
One of the smaller temples was Athena Parias or the last temple in the city. Also the name of the other temple was Athena Nike or Athena Temple. The goddess Athena was originally thought to be the goddess of protection. To the Athenians Athena was considered a form of the goddess.
They only worshiped in this temple differently.
History of the glorious Parthenon
construction General Pericles took the initiative to start the reconstruction of the Parthenon at the same time as all the other small and large temples in the Elysee Valley. Two specially nominated architects and sculptors submitted their designs.
The two architects were Iktinas and Calicrates, respectively. Phidias was also the only sculptor.
The builders used extraordinary techniques to make the whole building look like a temple.
The builders used extraordinary techniques to make the whole building look like a temple. Each side of the building is made up of lower steps and higher steps. Which enhances the beauty of the temple. In addition, 19 columns were made inside the Parthenon and 48 outside. And these columns were centered like a boundary wall.
However, archaeologists have found some differences between the internal columns. The columns at different corners of the temple are larger in diameter than the other columns. But the most surprising thing is – there is no right angle in the Parthenon!
Inside the temple
Inside the temple was an extraordinary statue of the goddess Athena, built by the sculptor Fedias. The statue is no longer there. However, researchers have found numerous evidence that it was inside the temple. It is thought to have been about 12 meters or 39 feet long and standing. The builders built it using ivory, wood, and gold. The external work of the Parthenon was completed in 436 BC. According to historians, the statue of Athena was revered even in Roman times.
There is currently a fake statue of the goddess Athena in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. It was built in about 6 years from 1982 to 1990. In the right hand of this fake idol is seen the goddess of the goddess Athena. There is also the shield of war in the other hand. Not only that, there is also a long spear in front of Athena. The builders claim they built it based on evidence obtained from various ruins from the Acropolis.
The end result of the Parthenon
Pericles died in 429 BC. However, the reconstruction work started under his leadership did not take much time. It took only 4 years to build the main gate of the Acropolis. The smaller temples were built earlier, so the construction of the temple in honor of the goddess Athena was completed within 9 years.
Parthenon and the Acropolis. The whole work of the Acropolis could not be completed in 50 years
But when construction began in Athens in 490 BC, the whole work of the Acropolis could not be completed in 50 years due to war and natural disasters. Historians point to General Pericles’ surveillance behind it. Although the rest of the work did not stop after his death.
Parthenon and the Acropolis was hit by a massive earthquake.
A decade after its construction, the Parthenon was hit by a massive earthquake. At that time, it and other nearby installations showed remarkable resilience. Although the whole of Athens was damaged by that earthquake in 427 BC, it was able to move only one inch of a Parthenon column. Modern-day archaeologists have come up with some fascinating information.
The Parthenon and its environs were protected from catastrophic natural disasters at various times, largely due to the extraordinary intelligence of the architects.
Then, after being used as a Greek place of worship for about 1,000 years, the Parthenon and its surrounding temples fell to the Christians. In the fifth century, Athens fell to the Byzantines and Romans. As a result, the rulers conducted various religious activities in the Parthenon. It later fell to the Ottomans in 1500 AD.
The Ottomans then used it as a mosque. Then, after Greece gained independence in the 19th century, the Athens and Parthenon temples were recaptured. By that time, however, everything had been destroyed except war and natural disasters. Various valuables inside were stolen.
In 2015, a team of engineers tested the Parthenon structures. They say that two and a half thousand years ago, architects made its structure earthquake-resistant, which is why the structures of Acropolis and Parthenon still stand in the heart of Athens. And for this Acropolis, the ancient architects deserve many thanks and respect.
No one in modern times could have imagined
No one in modern times could have imagined that the architects of thousands of years ago could have turned it into a reality with such advanced thinking. Not only that, Acropolis and Parthenon represented Athens as the most developed and prosperous city in ancient Greece. And in the evolution of human civilization, the fact that man was the best creature of creation in the past can be realized by looking at the Parthenon and the Acropolis.
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